I found a recent dissertation that analyzes the Aramaic poetic texts–both biblical and non-biblical–from Qumran.
Tag Archives: aramaic
While reading for Bob Cargill’s seminar on the Targums to Genesis this past week, I noticed that Targum Pseudo-Jonathan (P-J) sees the opening verses of Genesis as poetry and that the meturgeman’s additions to this text maintain good poetic rhythm. As an example, here are the first few verses, divided into their poetic lines.
1a From the beginning, God created
b The heavens and the earth.
2a The earth was formless and void,
b Desolate of humanity and empty of all livestock,
c And darkness was upon the surface of the deep.
d A merciful wind from before God
e Blew over the surface of the waters.
3a God said,
b “Let there be light to illuminate the world,”
c And immediately there was light.
4a God saw
b that the light was good,
c And God separated
d between the light and the darkness.
5a God called the light “daytime,”
b and he created it for the inhabitants of the world to work during it.
c The darkness he called “nighttime,”
d And he created it for the creatures to rest.
e It was evening
f And it was morning,
g The first day.
When divided up this way, several features about the text become apparent.
The first four strophes (lines 1a-3c) show good parallelistic alternation. Strophe 1 (lines 1a-b) and strophe 3 (lines 2d-e) are both bicolons with the same stress pattern, 3-2. Strophe 2 (lines 2a-c) and strophe 4 (lines 3a-c) do not share a common meter—strophe 2 has three lines of four stresses each, while strophe 4 has a stress pattern of 2-3-3—but both are tricolons that, importantly, tell two halves of the same story, and therefore must be connected.
Strophe 5 (lines 4a-d) and strophe 6 (lines 5a-d) are also well matched. Each consists of two parallel bicolons, and each of those bicolons have matching stress patterns: strophe 5 has a stress pattern of 2-2|2-2, and strophe 6 has 4-4|3-3.
Finally, strophe 7 (lines 5e-g) is a nice concluding tricolon of stress pattern 2-2-2.
P-J takes the Hebrew text of Genesis 1 and obviously reshapes it, but the additions maintain the poetic balance of the original. Even in the five verses I have examined so far, we may see two very clear examples of P-J’s skill at maintaining good meter in his additions to the text.
The first example is in Genesis 1:2. In the Hebrew text, Genesis 1:2 can be read as a four-line strophe, consisting of two parallel bicolons; P-J, however, expands the text into a well-balanced tricolon and a well-balanced bicolon.
The second example, from verse 5, is even more striking. P-J adds two phrases into this verse, but these additions maintain—even enhance—the verse’s poetic effect. Line 5a, which is a literal translation of the Hebrew text, has four stresses, and line 5b, which is entirely P-J’s own material, also has four stresses; likewise, line 5c, which matches the Hebrew, has three stresses, while P-J’s addition in line 5d also has three stresses.
These additions, especially those in verse 5, show even more concretely that the author of this text composed it as verse and that he intended it to be read as such.
Lastly, we may draw a few conclusions based on my analysis. First, we may conclude that the author of this section of P-J was clearly educated and was well versed in composing poetry—a conclusion that is consistent with the view, advocated by Y. Maori and E. Itzchaky, that an educated author composed P-J for an educated audience. Second, it seems the author of this section of P-J saw the opening chapter of Genesis as poetry, which led him to maintain poetic meter through his targum of the text. Lastly, even if P-J was not intended for use in a synagogue (as Yeshayahu Maori, Efraim Itzchaky, and Avigdor Shinan have argued; see Maher 1987 for references), this section of the text, at least, was intended for corporate use, to be chanted or sung to an audience.
Maher, Michael. Targum Pseudo-Jonathan: Translated, with Introduction and Notes. Aramaic Bible 1B. Collegeville, Minn.: Liturgical Press, 1987.
Westermann, Claus. Genesis 1-11: A Continental Commentary. Minneapolis: Augsburg; London: SPCK, 1984.
I’ve been searching for electronic flashcards for John’s Short Grammar of Biblical Aramaic and Layton’s Coptic in 20 Lessons all semester. (I cut my teeth with FlashWorks, the vocabulary software that comes with Mounce’s Basics of Biblical Greek, so paper flashcards don’t really do it for me.)
Thankfully, a kind soul has made free, online flashcards sets for all 20 chapters of Johns, which I’m very excited about. They can be found here. The same site has some flashcards for Layton (chapters 2-13), but I haven’t yet found anywhere that has flashcards for all 20 chapters.